Definition Eclecticism

In textual criticism, eclecticism is the practice of examining a large number of textual witnesses and choosing the variant that seems best. The result of the trial is a text with readings from many witnesses. In a purely eclectic approach, theoretically no single witness is preferred. Instead, the critic forms an opinion about individual witnesses, relying on both external and internal evidence. In sculpture and painting, an attempt has been made to combine the results already obtained, usually in a flat eclecticism. Eclecticism plays an important role in critical discussions and evaluations, but is somehow far removed from the actual forms of the artifacts to which it is applied, and its meaning is therefore rather vague. The simplest definition of the term – that each work of art represents the combination of a variety of influences – is so fundamental that it is of little use. In a way, eclecticism is reminiscent of Mannerism, since the term was used pejoratively for much of the period of its currency, although eclecticism, unlike Mannerism, never represented a particular movement or style: it is characterized precisely by the fact that it was not a particular style. Encyclopedia article on eclecticism Our critic Michael Caines asks if eclecticism leads to adventure. Since the mid-19th century, eclecticism, in which there is no bias a priori against a single manuscript, has been the predominant method of editing the Greek text of the New Testament (currently United Bible Society, 4th ed. and Nestlé-Åland, 27th ed.). Nevertheless, the oldest manuscripts, which are of the Alexandrian type of text, are the most preferred, and the critical text has an Alexandrian disposition. [8] Subscribe to America`s largest dictionary and get thousands of additional definitions and advanced search – ad-free! Meanwhile, Miriam Finch continues her studies with Eugene with her subtle eclecticism.

According to Rošker and Suhadolnik, although eclecticism has a Greek origin, the term was rarely used and even negatively connoted by historians of Greek thought, associated with the description of impure and non-original thought. [5] Scholars such as Clement of Alexandria have asserted that eclecticism has a long history in Greek philosophy and that it is supported by a deeper metaphysical and theological belief about the Absolute/God as the source of all noble thoughts, and that all parts of truth are found in the different philosophical systems. [6] The term eclecticism is used to describe the combination of elements of different historical styles, mainly in architecture and therefore in the visual and decorative arts, in a single work. The term is also sometimes loosely applied to the general stylistic diversity of 19th century architecture after Neoclassicism (circa 1820), although revivals of styles in this period since the 1970s are commonly referred to as aspects of historicism. [7] Their eclecticism is broader and more complicated than that of the young people of the 90s or 2000s, even more omnivorous, which makes it more difficult for business leaders to market a unified youth culture, or for the so-called cool hunters who address them. These sample sentences are automatically selected from various online information sources to reflect the current use of the word “eclecticism.” The opinions expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us your feedback. “Eclecticism.” dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Retrieved 10 January 2022. Several hundred years earlier, Galen had developed a method that perhaps deserves the title of pure eclecticism.

They have failed, like all the just-middles of the world, and they are mocked for their eclecticism. Show your appreciation with 25 other ways to say “thank you”,” “epidemic” vs “pandemic” vs “endemic”: What do these terms mean? In modern philosophy, Victor Cousin is the founder of modern eclecticism. [10] Eclecticism in ethics, philosophy, politics and religion is also called syncretism. [Citation needed] Eclecticism is recognized in approaches to psychology that see many factors that affect behavior and cognition or the psyche. In the 1970s, psychologists began using the approaches and techniques they deemed appropriate for their client. [11] They take into account multiple perspectives while identifying, explaining, and modifying customer behavior. [11] Some martial arts can be described as eclectic in the sense that they borrow techniques from a variety of other martial arts. But for Christian philosophers, it was not only the negative influence of skepticism that led them to eclecticism.

“Forty-year-old” or “Octogenarian”: What is the name of your decade? The most surprising random words of the day What is the difference between “that” and “sound”? Why do “left” and “right” mean liberal and conservative? In Hellenistic philosophy, the eclectics used elements of several philosophies, texts, life experiences, and their own philosophical ideas. These ideas include life, which is associated with existence, knowledge, values, reason, reason, mind, and language. This movement is closely related to Middle Platonism. This eclectic tendency was made possible by the fact that most of Plato`s works were not dogmatic. [9]:305 Middle Platonism was promoted by the need to take into account the main theories of postplatonic schools of philosophy, such as Aristotelian logic and Stoic psychology and ethics (theory of goods and emotions). [9]:306 On the one hand, average Platonists, like later peripatetics, were involved in scientific activities such as presenting Plato`s teachings and explaining his dialogues; on the other hand, they tried to systematically develop Platonic theories. To the extent that it was subject to the influence of Neo-Pythagoreanism, it was of considerable importance in paving the way for Neoplatonism. [9]:306 This can sometimes seem inelegant or simple, and eclectic people are sometimes criticized for their lack of coherence in their thinking. However, it is common in many fields of study.

For example, most psychologists accept some aspects of behaviorism, but do not try to use theory to explain all aspects of human behavior. Eclecticism was first practiced by a group of ancient Greek and Roman philosophers who did not cling to any real system, but chose from existing philosophical beliefs the teachings that seemed most reasonable to them. From this collected material, they built their new system of philosophy. The term comes from the Greek ἐκλεκτικός (eclectikos), literally “to choose the best”[1],[2] and that of ἐκλεκτός (eclektos), “distinguished, select”. [3] The well-known eclectics in Greek philosophy were the Stoics Panaetius and Posidonius and the new academicians Carneades and Philo of Larissa. Among the Romans, Cicero was quite eclectic as he united the peripatetic, stoic and new academic teachings. Philo`s successor and Cicero`s teacher, Antiochus of Ascalon, is credited with influencing the Academy, eventually moving from skepticism to eclecticism. [4] Other eclectics were Varro and Seneca the Younger. Antiochus of Ascalon (c. 125 † c. 69 BC) was a pupil of Philo of Larissa and the teacher of Cicero.

Thanks to his influence, Platonism moved from the academic skepticism of the New Academy to eclecticism. [9]:273 While Philo had adhered to the doctrine that there is nothing absolutely certain, Antiochus renounced it to support dogmatism. Among his objections to skepticism was the consideration that without firm convictions, no rational content of life is possible. [9]:273 Antiochus pointed out that it is contradictory to assert that nothing can be claimed, or to prove that nothing can be proved; that we cannot talk about false ideas and at the same time deny the distinction between false and true. [9]:274 He explained the academic, peripatetic, and stoic systems in such a way that he showed that these three schools differed from each other only in small dots. [9]:274 Antiochus was primarily interested in ethics, in which he tried to find common ground between Zeno of Citium, Aristotle, and Plato.